Thursday, December 15, 2022

What is Marketing - The Basics and Philosophies of Marketing

This article will introduce you to marketing: what is marketing, the marketing process and its elements in short, what are the philosophies and principles of marketing, how you learn marketing, and how you work with marketing. This article is an entry point for beginners in the field, but it can also be a good review of those in the field, because returning to basics every period is often useful and stimulating!


1- Marketing definition

Each science has a simple definition that is easy and clear, but marketing is different. Marketing can be defined by a lot of definitions, different according to how you see marketing, there are those who see marketing as selling, there are those who see it as promotion and advertising only, and food companies see it in a large way in distributing the product appropriately to wholesalers and retailers. There are social organisations that focus on the definition of marketing being linked to ethical and social aspects.

There are those who define marketing as giving the customer sufficient information about the product to make his purchasing decision appropriately and correctly, and there are those who believe that he put the right product for the right customer at the right price, and they see that the most important thing in marketing is the marketing mix. and other definitions and perspectives.

Definition of marketing according to Wikipedia

Definition of marketing at Wikipedia, according to the American Marketing Association: "The activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large"
In short: it is the process of creating and delivering products and offers that are exchanged between companies and customers.

Definition of marketing by Philip Koestler

The definition of marketing according to Philip Koestler is "Satisfying Customers' Needs at a Profit" which focuses on moving marketing from an old perspective that we will talk about shortly in the philosophy of selling - Selling Concept, to a new perspective, and it looks at marketing from the customer's point of view, companies have to see the needs of the market and work to satisfy them profitably.

This simple and wonderful definition lacks an understanding that the company meets the needs of the customer through an integrated marketing process, and this is what I will explain to you in the next part.

(* This, of course, is not a lack of understanding of marketing by Philippe Koestler! but this collier definition focuses on making it clear that marketing always starts with the customer and his needs, not the other way around).

2- Marketing process

Understanding the marketing process is very important at the beginning of your understanding and entering the science of marketing, because there is still a lot of believe that marketing is a simple science, it may be reduced only in an advertisement or promotional publication, and there are those who see it equal to the sale, but if we look at marketing with a comprehensive and correct view we will discover something else completely.

Marketing goes through four stages:

Market Search 

Market Research includes a lot (which, by the way, is more comprehensive than Marketing Research).

Market research includes an analysis of buyers (their types, preferences, needs, division will be useful later in developing the appropriate marketing strategy). It also includes competition analysis, both direct and indirect competition, and includes an analysis of suppliers and intermediaries, which are very important parties to the Supply Chain chain. Also at this stage, you analyze the product/company, and extract their strengths and weaknesses.

Marketing strategy

Marketing Strategy is a marketing brain, dividing the market and targeting your profitable segment that will focus on giving the product or service to it, and then building a mental site- Position, makes you distinct from competitors in the market, and at this stage according to division and targeting, you will set your marketing objectives accurately.

* Many love marketing for branding, and they are interested in branding, branding, brand building technology may fall within the scope of your marketing strategy, in the part of extracting your competitive advantages - Differentiation, then building a competitive mental position - Position, but it may also be part of your development of the product in the marketing mix.

Marketing Software/Marketing Mix

At this stage you will implement the strategy on the ground through the Action Program. You will develop a product, price the product, distribute it, promote and advertise appropriately to achieve the objectives of spreading, selling and building the brand properly.
If you understand this stage well, you'll remove any confusion about the differences between marketing and other popular marketing terms, such as marketing through social Media, because there are a lot of new marketing people who see marketing as an ad (as they call it) or a post on social Media, but marketing through social Media (promoting social Media to be more accurate), is a promotional tool, falls within the scope of promotional tools (mix), and the mix is part of the mix as you see, which in turn is marketing, which in turn is marketing. Part of the marketing process that we're explaining - in short - now.

The same goes for the difference between marketing and selling, because there are those who see them as one! Personal Selling is also part of the promotional mix. The exact same thing applies to advertising, and the mixing of this term with marketing, advertising is only a small part within promotion, and promotion is part of marketing. Thus, by correctly understanding the marketing process, you can remove any confusion or confusion between marketing terms that many believe are the same or similar.

Focus and control

In order to ensure that your marketing process is going right, you need to control and control control, and the most important control tool is to build strong, cohesive and profitable relationships with customers, and to ensure that you give them the best service/product. Because establishing strong and cohesive relationships with customers is one of the most important things you do at this stage, there are those who believe that the final stage is about building relationships with the customer – Customer Relationships Management, according to Philip Koestler and marketing fundamentals.

But as you delve deeper into marketing plans, you will find that the final stage of marketing is generally controlling the plan, and building strong relationships with the customer is an important part of the control and control effort.

3- Marketing strategies/philosophies

There are 5 popular marketing philosophies. When you create business, you are free to choose one of them, depending on your goals, market conditions, consumers, and certainly the nature of the product or service you offer. These philosophies are seen by some as evolving to understand the science of marketing and its importance, but I see it still exists and companies can choose between them, although the philosophy of marketing (philosophy no. 4 is the best, most modern and integrated).

At these points I will explain them to you in a nutshell:

Principle/Philosophy of Production

This principle is based on the idea of the company/factory producing large quantities of the product, while entering within the scope of economies of scale , and here the company does not care much about dividing the market and targeting a specific segment, and also often does not care to give the product its full right and output in the best possible form and quality, All it is interested in here is the production of huge quantities of the product, and therefore one of the secrets of the success of this strategy is that there is a great demand for the commodity produced by the company, but this demand must be greater than supply, thus ensuring that the company will consume everything it produces.

This philosophy is based on the customer who needs the commodity at low prices, and the commodity is available everywhere, a mental location – a very important position for a large number of companies around the world, and it relates to the power of proliferation – Convenience, where the product is everywhere around the buyer. Therefore, this strategy is found in food and consumer products in particular.

This principle is often called work according to mass production - Mass Production, and the division of the market and the targeting of a specific segment of it is not important, except perhaps in the case of advertising and promotion, for example Pepsi and Coca-Cola are companies that produce a very large number of products and do not target a specific segment except in the promotion process (Pepsi focuses for example on the youth segment in its promotional campaigns, Pepsi includes a higher sugar percentage and thus provides young people with energy, but overall they do not need much for the process of zoning and targeting during the Its development of the product, it is produced with a product in very large quantities, and at a low price, everyone can afford it, and almost the same applies to Coca-Cola, which may target family and groupings, in its promotional campaigns, but do not care about this at the time of product development and pricing).

Product Concept Principle/ Philosophy

This principle is based on the idea of the company producing less product, but with higher quality and mastery, and the company here is specifically targeting a customer who is not looking as a priority for price, but looking for added value in the product. The company may therefore lose advantages such as that the product is available everywhere, or its price is affordable. These companies find them in the technology sector, or car production. Even in the consumer sector (although the consumer products sector, as we have previously indicated, focuses on the principle of heavy production, with the product being low-priced and bionic).

Although the previous examples reflect the principle of the product, but this principle can be observed in a company that produces very luxurious watches, and has a distinct value, this company - let's say it's Rolex - produces a premium product and knows that it will sell it to a small segment that owns money, and here its strength is the premium product, but there are companies that fail to impose this marketing strategy on the market, so we find that the marketing philosophy that we will be exposed to in a little while is the best, because it starts from recognising the needs of the customer first.

Principle/Philosophy of Sale

This principle is seen as against (respectable) marketing principles that are concerned with working on customer satisfaction and satisfying their needs. The principle of selling depends on the idea that everything that is produced must be sold, whether it achieves customer satisfaction or not. You will find this principle in so many products and services, from banking services to a commodity about which we know nothing to real estate. This principle, because it does not focus on marketing thinking, may bring the company a large number of customers at first, but this success does not continue, because the company cannot build on it to achieve strong, profitable and long-term relationships with customers.

Again do not think that we list these principles, to choose in the end the principle or philosophy of marketing, because these principles succeed in one way or another in the market, there are major real estate companies, interested in providing sales agencies, or sales specialists, with a high degree of quality and skill in convincing and selling, and they can already convince a good number of buyers, and these companies focus in their promotional mix on selling significantly, and are successful with this philosophy.

Marketing Principle/Philosophy

Of course, any specialist in this field understands this principle and places it as a priority at work. Here companies work to understand and analyze customers and identify their needs, then produce the goods and services they need.

When we put this principle in comparison with the principles of production and product - Production/ Product Philosophies we will find that the principle of the product starts from producing a product of high quality but often the company may not succeed in selling the product because it is expensive and there is not a large number that wants to buy it, which leads to its loss, but the principle of mass production, depends on the production of the commodity in large quantities, customers buy it because there is a large demand, but the problem actually occurs when the demand decreases (economic conditions for example or for the entry of a large competitor in the market). But the principle of marketing has the advantage that the company plans and starts from the customer and not from the stage of production, and therefore its success rates are high.

This company will find it in difficult markets with very high competition, which require a high degree of marketing craftsmanship, such as the market for electrical or technological products.

You might think here that I would say that the best is always to work according to the principle of marketing. I was hoping that was true! When I started in this field I was amazed by companies that achieve tremendous sales and do not have a marketing department! But over time I understand that marketing and promotion are becoming stronger and more unified with certain companies and in certain markets, but, for example, the principle of mass production may actually achieve large sales without the company relying on the principle of marketing (clearly), which, as I told you in previous cases and examples, succeeds in certain circumstances and products.

Principle/Philosophy of Society

If we see that marketing philosophies come in order, in the sense that companies first start to think about the logic of mass production, then there are companies that have tried to raise the level of the product to gain a different segment of the market, then there are companies that have tried to build their business on the idea that everything that is produced is sold, and then the principle of marketing (to the extent that you find that marketing is the trend of the times now), the principle of society is - as an arrangement - completes all of the above. Is to work on the needs of customers but ethically. This is because there are many who believe that marketing is exploited by many companies immorally when trying to convince the customer of a product that harms him for example, or a service that he does not need in the first place, but try to exploit it and feel that he needs it, and here comes marketing society to put the consumer first, and work on his satisfaction and maintain, very ethically. Companies in the community principle are also trying to give something back to the community and contribute to its reform and the eradication of poverty and problems in it (see this is clear in the corporate responsibility)

In my opinion, the societal principle, which is the fifth principle or philosophy of marketing philosophies, is complementary to the previous four philosophies, not different from them.

4- Why you need marketing

Because I have been working in this field for a long time, this question seems strange to me, and to anyone old in this field, because we see that marketing is everything for companies, there is no successful company without strong marketing, and you may encounter successful companies that do not have a marketing department or marketing specialist within the company, but they practice marketing correctly nevertheless, surely they offer a product with a correct marketing strategy, meet the needs of buyers, otherwise they will never be successful. 

In the early days of my writing in marketing I wrote an article entitled 10 Reasons to Love Marketing, and although it was a light article somewhat humorous, but most of what was written in this article can now be applied now as well, and the answer to why we need marketing can be shortened in about 3 points, and it looks like a division of the segments that want to learn marketing.

  • If you are a business owner or a marketing professional, you need marketing for your company's success and pushing it forward, otherwise you won't go one step further, the product, as you know, doesn't sell itself! It needs a plan, pricing, promotion and other tools to succeed, spread and buy.
  • If you are not a specialist in the field, but you have another job such as an engineer designing a product, or an operations manager in a company, you will also not understand the system without marketing, and you will not understand the consumer and how he thinks and what he wants and expects from you, without the use of marketing and market research.
  • You will need marketing when you realise that this science is a life science, and you learn it in order to market yourself and succeed in life especially at the professional level. Too many employees are paid low salaries and companies don't give them their due stake because they don't understand marketing and brand building arts - Branding, and those who win the best jobs are always the ones who are good at marketing for themselves, not the requirement that they be the most efficient (those who market themselves well and win the best jobs!). Remember that.

5- How to learn marketing 

Marketing is science as any science, but it is characterised by magnitude, and some difference, the most important difference is that marketing and the definition of marketing is not specified, which as I told you earlier varies from person to person, from one area to another, and maybe from a book - talking about marketing - to another, so you should start with the right beginning of this science.

How to start marketing?

This question seems easy for those who still believe that marketing is limited to Facebook ads! But marketing from the point of view of specialists is a much larger area, the marketing research specialist, works in marketing, who develops the distribution plan of the company is a marketing specialist, and who writes the wonderful titles of television advertising is a marketing specialist, and by the way who works in the sales, is calculated on marketing as well. So you have to decide now!

Choosing the department in which you want to work in marketing is the first real step to enter this field, and this is not easy of course, you first have to understand yourself well and understand your potential, then - my opinion - to try and test yourself in several different marketing roles - be confused between them - and then decide and choose the most appropriate.

After this stage it will be easy to start the learning journey, so assuming you want to work in market research, you will focus on this section, start reading important books in it, maybe get specialised training and education in it, and most importantly work in it even voluntarily at the beginning.

6- How to work in marketing

Also learning marketing and what are the most important books that you should read to learn, from the hard questions, the question of how to work in marketing also of the difficult questions, this is due to a reason, which is that the field of marketing is huge and complex, but if you tell me what speciality or department you want to work in marketing, it will make it easier for you, and I will give you a more accurate answer.

I'll tell you here a few examples:

Marketing roles and job titles

If you want to work in food and fast-consuming products - FM CG, at multinational, I will tell you that you have to work some time selling and distributing the product in these companies, with names like Sales Rep., then you move to marketing labels such as Assistant Brand Manager/Brand Manager and then you step up to labels like Category/Marketing Manager and so on.

If you want to work in advertising, you'll join labels like Copywriter/Creative Director in advertising agencies. If you mean advertising on communication channels, you may want to act as digital Marketing Executive.

If you like analysis and market research, it will be best suited for you to work as marketing research specialist.

So you will find that the first real step in marketing is to ask yourself some questions: what are my possibilities, what Do I like in general, what I like about marketing in particular, why I want to work in marketing. Etc. You will then select the department you want to specialise in and work in, and then start your way correctly.


About 10 years ago I had developed some questions, when you answer them, i try through these answers to analyse your personality to tell you which marketing roles will be appropriate for you, I will bring them back here, and can answer them in the comments, and I will respond to your comment, to tell you , from my point of view, what marketing role is right for you.

Do marketing functions exist!

Marketing is one of the areas that you might call new areas in our country, even if, as I told you, it's not a business without a successful company!

If you now go to recruitment sites you will find a dearth of marketing functions and traditional roles, such as this role (Marketing Coordinator) whose role was previously to coordinate all marketing tasks in the company. Now you find that most marketing roles are limited to e-marketing functions.

This has the advantage that if you want to enter the field of marketing there are a lot of jobs in e-marketing, which are needed by micro companies before the big companies, but the problem here is that this market has entered a phase of price war, and you may find yourself having to do a lot in this field with very low salaries, because many others do the same role.

The solution here is that: either offer the same roles as electronic marketing but high quality, or specialise in providing uncommon tools or need higher technicians, and let's assume work in promoting websites by creating search sites - SEO / SEM, which is something offered - supply of marketing workers less than the offer in the marketing part of social  Media (because it seems harder for many of them), so your chance will be good if you master it.

The most important thing is to do this and you have a scientific and comprehensive background on marketing in general, you can not succeed in e-marketing and distinguish from those - too many - in the market, unless you understand marketing in general and with a high level of accuracy.

For those who want to work in marketing roles in large companies, and apart from e-marketing, their chances are still very strong (because it has become a rare currency!) If the way it is different, and it passes on understanding the field in which you will work a technical understanding, for example you will not be a marketing manager in telecommunications companies, unless you are very good at understanding communications! It's the product you're shopping for. So I gave you the advice to work as a vendor first in the field where you want to market (as required in food companies for example) or study the field thoroughly before working on it, and this by the way is required in electronic marketing as well, but as I told you that electronic marketing is a smaller version of marketing, and because of the entry of too many in it, its scientific features are no longer clear to many.

My experience in short that I entered the field of marketing in 2008 when I tried to promote my own project, and when I worked officially in marketing in a company, the spread of e-marketing was not like this, so my speciality was and is still in the marketing range in its general form, I presented marketing strategies for companies and this was my strength, but with the establishment of a company specialising in marketing, I found myself inclined to work in the scope of e-marketing, and gained experience in it. So whether you specialise in offline marketing roles or not, you will find yourself under neath you and need to market and promote online or at least understand it well.

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