In conjunction with the comprehensive renaissance of engineering sciences in various fields in recent decades, the urban renaissance has emerged in an unprecedented manner and imposed itself with the force of the completion of large residential, industrial and service projects, where it was implemented under the umbrella of engineering insurance, which helped protect the investor from many risks faced by these projects during the various stages of work.
These risks, which have a direct and indirect negative impact on the project at various stages of its implementation, are out of control in terms of the causes of their occurrence, but the concern has been and continues to be to think and research how to find ways to prevent such risks and in the event of exposure to them work to reduce and reduce their negative consequences on the basic elements of the project represented by the constructed facility in addition to the mechanisms, warehouses and housing of workers.
This comes through the control of the effects of physical and moral risk that play the greatest role in determining the magnitude of the resulting loss, but for the material effects their procedures vary depending on the age of the project and basically the responsibility in managing these effects lies on two main parties in the study and design phase the responsibility lies with the study in authority planned for the project, but during the construction phase the responsibility is transferred to the executor.
At the study stage, the student will select the site appropriately in several ways:
- First, the foundation soil should be strong and coherent to avoid the risk of landing and slipping in the advanced stages of the project or after a period of time after the establishment is put into service and this is confirmed by the conduct of Geo technical soil tests by special laboratories (these soils are located in the areas south and north of Damascus city and are of the Conglomerate type).
Secondly, it should not be located in an area facing Seoul or any exceptional natural or geographical factors.
Third, study the possibility of civil defence vehicles and ambulances arriving at the site in a short time in the event of an emergency.
In addition to selecting the site in a way that avoids some of the expected risks, the design of the timeline is of the utmost importance in terms of distributing project events, linking them consistently and working to place the basic processes in appropriate chapters and choosing the appropriate time to start implementing some critical work whose delay affects the progress of basic operations in the project in order to avoid any delay in the delivery of the project from the specified date.
With the start of the project activities on the ground, the executor takes responsibility for managing the danger in the preliminary stage, it must take the necessary precautions and precautions by fencing the site appropriately and securing appropriate lighting in addition to the need for a night guard to reduce the possibility of infiltration of the site.
As for the work of the foundation, work must be done very carefully and accurately when starting the excavation work, especially with regard to the use of mechanisms that result in vibrations that may affect the structural sentence of buildings and adjacent facilities such as landing and cracking in their bearing elements such as columns and foundations, and must work to strengthen all aspects of the excavations according to the appropriate requirements of soil quality to prevent collapses that may lead to catastrophic damage in addition to work to finish all the work that lies under the natural ground level of excavations and works In a reasonable period of time because they are often more vulnerable to natural hazards such as avalanches and water collection from different sources, which in turn result in multiple losses and interruptions in work.
As the establishment of the facility is completed and the construction works begin in various stages, a new type of risk arises that require different methods of processing and control so as not to affect this built-in infrastructure, which is often from the armed bison, where over time it can lead to its wear and tear before the expiry of its design life, which is often fifty years old.
Therefore, the implementing authority must use mods of high quality and strengthen edited to prevent their collapse during the casting process, taking into account the use of appropriate additions to the bionic mixture during preparation, such as those that increase the resistance and tolerance of the bitumen element or accelerate the process of hardening, and after the completion, the template should not be removed before the expiry of the design time period of this element and pay attention to increase this period in the case of non-sunny days in addition. To do regular watering to take the required hardness so that it is able to withstand the required loads and stress.
In the termination phase, the processes overlap and become more complex, the infrastructure is open and ready to receive all the work of compliance, so to avoid any conflict or accidents as a result of this overlap and synchronisation is worked on the strict coordination between the entities responsible for carrying out the compliance operations of suppliers or contractors, if they are under the supervision and direct supervision of the executor's management, and often work on the design of a program for the supply of materials so that the risks and damage storing in the temporary warehouses are avoided by installing directly. When it reaches the site after all the necessary conditions for installation have been prepared.
The materials are varied and in residential buildings often the largest proportion of the wooden journeyman, which is a major source of risk with its rapid flammability, so the building is provided from the inside at this stage of the project with manual extinguishers and its operation is ensured effectively when needed, taking into account its proper distribution to cover the various areas of the establishment constructed.
Such measures come to reduce the risk of hazards and reduce their negative aspects if they occur for the facility itself, but for the mechanisms working on this project, which are another source of risk, they must be treated with the same importance of the risks to the facility by conducting periodic maintenance and storing their fuel in safe places in addition to choosing the appropriate places to park outside working hours.
For the warehouses, which are another important element of the project, work is done to be strong and weather-resistant from rain and storms and to have the base of these stores lifted from the ground sufficient distance to prevent water from reaching the materials stored in the cases of rain, hurricanes and floods.
These warehouses at certain stages of the project contain large quantities of primary building materials so that they are stored in regular ways so that they are easily accessible and rescued in case of a specific accident such as fire and taking into account that they are not stacked irregularly and hinder rescue operations.
One of the elements that may be present in the project is also the housing of workers, which must take into account the strength of the construction and its stability in the face of weather factors and the presence of fire fighting devices in addition to the distribution of residential units so that a sufficient safety space is left to reduce the likelihood of fire moving from one unit to another in the event of an outbreak and so that it is easily accessible by the rescue vehicles involved in the accident.
All of the above-mentioned physical effects are not taken and acted on in isolation from the effects of moral hazard, which play a significant role if the necessary attention is given to undermining and mitigating the danger at various stages:
- Before the danger occurs to prevent it from occurring.
- During the occurrence of the risk to reduce its severity.
- After the risk occurs to minimise its consequences and negative future effects.
The effects of moral hazard such as physical effects are borne by two main parties in the study phase, the responsibility lies with the study and the plan of the project by verifying the experience and efficiency of the technical staff and ensuring that the construction design process is carried out with high accuracy and in accordance with the standards and requirements of the engineering code adopted in terms of the weatherization and dimensions of horizontal and vertical elements and the ability to carry the required structural loads with the verification that the study has been done by taking a high safety factor to face any emergency changes in relation to the dimensions of the structural elements. In addition, the design loads work to select staff with outstanding experience to choose the type of materials to be used in the project with appropriate specifications in terms of their required properties, the necessary quantity and availability in the market.
In the implementation phase, the effects of the moral hazard are manifested through the behaviour of the daily staff on the site and its ability to fully assume the responsibilities that rest fully and take the appropriate role in crisis management through its full commitment to the administrative instructions issued by his company in addition to his commitment to the technical instructions issued by the supervisor of the project, and this is manifested by full compliance with the specifications and quantities of building materials in addition to the commitment to the program of the project.
Therefore, the implementing authority must commit to spreading awareness to achieve the security and safety of the site through many procedures, the first of which is the selection of a staff with experience and high efficiency for all administrative levels who are able to manage crises as required, the inexperience of the engineering staff at the site may cause catastrophic accidents such as inaccurate reading of plans that may cause large accidents such as hitting important service lines on the site ground that in turn lead to serious damage and consequences for the project itself and for other parties benefiting from These lines in addition to the possibility of implementing the construction elements in a manner commensurate with the assumed design weights would expose the establishment to many risks such as cracks in the different elements, which requires careful reinforcement often of high cost.
At the level of the project's employment, they must be subjected to a first aid course and multiple courses to deal with various risks, work to prevent smoking in all areas of the project, subject violators to warnings and penalties, in addition to special training for heavy equipment drivers to ensure proper handling of such equipment.
These procedures require the appointment of a security, safety and environmental officer, if not the establishment of a department or a full department for large projects that is concerned with raising awareness and monitoring the risk and warning of its existence to avoid it through the daily guidelines and reports that are sent daily to manage the project.
The control and diligent follow-up of the effects of the danger in both physical and moral aspects seeks and contributes to the security of the site and its safety, which is a joint interest between the insurance company and the executor of the project, as the executor is a key partner in the risk through the presence of the amounts of endurance and exceptions in the project insurance policy represented by the insurance policy of all the risks of contractors, which includes covering all elements of the project from a facility, mechanisms, stores and housing workers in addition to covering civil liability towards the third party.
The executor of the project is responsible for all losses that do not exceed the amount of endurance in addition to the losses excluded from the coverage in the document, such as financial fines resulting from various reasons, including the delay in delivering the project from the scheduled date.
These reasons are done by the implementing body to work seriously and persistently to impose many measures to prevent losses that negatively affect the progress of the project and work to mitigate their effects in the event of these actions come in response to the requirements of the insurance policy all the risks of contractors that are imposed on the insured in one of its terms to take at its own expense all reasonable precautions to avoid loss and that the violation of this condition can be considered a breach of one of the terms of the contract and may give the right to the insurance company. Think carefully before agreeing to the claim in the event of an accident and seek compensation for the resulting losses.
In order to ensure that the executor of the project adheres to the rules of security and public safety for the work of the project and for the existing employment, it is the role of the insurance company in monitoring and follow-up to ensure that these procedures are implemented satisfactorily and properly.
The insurance policy of all contractors' risks clearly states that the insurance company is entitled to perform this procedure either through its technical staff or through external inspections appointed by the insurance company for this purpose, since the condition gives the insurance company the right to disclose and examine the insurance risk at any time during the period of the insurance contract.
The process of periodic technical disclosure by the insurance company comes in additional support to the efforts of the implementing entity in avoiding risks through the guidance and guidance of the inspection sought during the detection process and comes the importance of the inspection on the other hand to ensure that all elements of the project that were secured within the insurance policy all the risks of contractors are compatible with what was stated at the beginning of the project and that it has been dropped in the schedule of the document properly in addition to ensuring that there is no additional work that has been attached to the executor It was not reported to adjust the amount of insurance in the policy of the basic project value in order to calculate an additional premium.
Therefore, the role of the inspection and periodic disclosure process is not only to check the security and safety procedures, but to examine the insured elements of the project and to conduct a process that matches its true values and authorised values to ensure the adequacy of the insurance amount and to avoid any conflict and misunderstanding in the interpretation of the document in the event that an element of the project is exposed to any accident that may result in certain losses.
The active work of the executor of the project to closely link and high coordination between the effects of the physical and moral risk through all available means that vary according to the nature of the project and its specificity come to avoid the project various material and moral losses for the financial losses finds the insured who participates in it, through the payment of the insurance company to compensate the insured the covered part of the claim of the insurance policy from these material losses, which in turn bears another part such as the amounts of endurance and collateral losses that often All contractors' risks are excluded from the insurance policy.
As for the moral losses, which are the most serious damage to the reputation of the company and loss of confidence in it in the event of significant risks as a result of negligence or mismanagement, its negative effects are not easily erased and the believer remains to bear its results alone where he works hard to erase it from memory trying to restore his company to its previous position in the construction work market.