The concept of insurance has evolved in recent decades in parallel with the industrial and technical development witnessed by the world as a means of transferring risk from the customer to the insurance company, which stimulates the development of investment, engineering and real estate projects as much of the risks involved in this development have been relatively transferred to the new risk holder, the insurance company.
Unfortunately, the insurance industry and culture in our Arab region is still at the beginning of its era and is considered one of the new concepts in our lives and insurance in its simplest definitions is to work to restore the customer to the situation it was in before the accident - without going into the terms and details of the contract - and working to compensate him without the victim reaching a better state than before the accident, which may lead to an increase in the so-called moral risk effect and thus increase his neglect and lack of attention to the dangers surrounding him. As a result, it may even create an incentive to create an accident that will lead to a better situation than it used to be and thus become a means of illicit gain.
The mechanism of insurance as an effective industry cannot be done as required without being provided with expert elements in other sciences to give the optimal result and perhaps one of the most important basic sciences related to insurance are health sciences, occupational safety, engineering sciences and medical sciences, in addition of course to statistical and actuarial sciences, which are considered one of the most important technical bases through which insurance prices are determined.
With regard to the sciences of health and occupational safety, it occupies the most important position in completing the insurance operations as required and to avoid the exposure of insurance companies to significant losses and this comes by relying on safety experts to carry out inspections of facilities, equipment or goods before insurance and providing insurance companies with detailed reports on the potential risks to the subject of insurance in addition to recommendations and measures that will reduce the possibility of accidents and the insurance company in turn transfers these recommendations to the institution Or the company requesting insurance to implement it before giving insurance cover as these recommendations are placed as requirements in the issued document and the importance of this type of science and its direct link to risk management, which is the essence of the insurance business, most insurance companies train their staff on the principles and foundations of occupational safety to benefit them optimally in their daily work where they are assigned to detect small risks but for the great risks specialists must study all the effects of the material and moral risk affecting the subject of risk.
As for engineering sciences, the projects and engineering equipment that are insured by the insurance company cannot estimate the damages caused in the event of an accident without referring to an expert engineer who specialises in the subject to determine the cause of the damage in order to ensure that it falls under the terms of the policy and as a second stage determine the amount of damage by reference to specifications, plans and schedules in order to reach fair compensation and this is what insurance companies are actually doing by appointing internal engineers to detect On such incidents or the use of damage assessment offices are often engineers of various disciplines, and we even note the presence of many engineers in various specialised companies in the international reinsurance companies in order to follow up on all these incidents with the insurance companies dealing with them.
As for the medical field, the development of life insurance and medical insurance has involved doctors in this field, since anyone who wants to apply for this type of insurance must provide the insurance company with a detailed report on his health condition and therefore there must be a person in the insurance company who is able to read and understand this report and thus evaluate the condition of the insured person in relation to the procedure before insurance, but after insurance it is more as the nature of claims and accidents of this type of Insurance requires a doctor's opinion to assess whether or not this disease or treatment falls within the scope of insurance coverage.
As for statistical and actuarial sciences, it is considered the technical basis in the development of insurance prices where the probability of any risk is studied and the appropriate price is put on it, assuming the presence of 1,000 homes in an area where no more than two houses are exposed to fires annually usually the price of basic fire insurance is two thousand and the insurance company adds an additional percentage to cover its expenses and profits, we can consider this example the simplest model of putting insurance prices based on statistical sciences and actuarial and the same thing gets In estimating the prices of life insurance by studying the number of deaths in a certain age segment and the development of these sciences and their programming on the computer has facilitated the obtaining accurate results of the insurance company and saving time and effort.
Marine science is no less important than the rest of the sciences in terms of overlapping in the insurance of goods and ships, which led many of those who worked as a ship captain to work in their retirement in the field of marine insurance to provide insurance with the experience they have taken over decades, and therefore each type of insurance depends mainly on the type of science related to it, it is not possible to secure agricultural crops without consulting agricultural engineers or oil insurance wells without reference to specialists in this field.
As a result, insurance is not an independent science that is closed to itself, but intersects with all sciences and professions in a large way, and the strength of insurance companies stems from their reliance on specialised cadres in these fields in order to reach the best result when insurance and the time of accidents.